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Why the sun's atmosphere is hundreds of times hotter than its surface 5nvklj





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Why the sun's atmosphere is hundreds of times hotter than its surface

Dragon
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Post by Dragon Wed May 26, 2021 3:33 am

The visible surface of the sun, or the photosphere, is around 6,000°C.

But a few thousand kilometers above it—a small distance when we consider the size of the sun—the solar atmosphere, also called the corona, is hundreds of times hotter, reaching a million degrees celsius or higher.

The coronal heating problem has been established since the late 1930s, when the Swedish spectroscopist Bengt Edlén and the German astrophysicist Walter Grotrian first observed phenomena in the sun's corona that could only be present if its temperature was a few million degrees celsius.

This represents temperatures up to 1,000 times hotter than the photosphere beneath it, which is the surface of the sun that we can see from Earth.


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Why the sun's atmosphere is hundreds of times hotter than its surface 334pu7m
Dragon
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Post by Dragon Wed May 26, 2021 3:36 am

Why the sun's atmosphere is hundreds of times hotter than its surface The-suns-atmosphere-is
Credit: Mongta Studio/Shutterstock

The visible surface of the sun, or the photosphere, is around 6,000°C.


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Why the sun's atmosphere is hundreds of times hotter than its surface 334pu7m
Dragon
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Post by Dragon Wed May 26, 2021 3:37 am

Why the sun's atmosphere is hundreds of times hotter than its surface The-suns-atmosphere-is-1
Credit: Siberian Art/Shutterstock

Sunspots are darker patches on the Sun’s surface


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Why the sun's atmosphere is hundreds of times hotter than its surface 334pu7m
Dragon
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Post by Dragon Wed May 26, 2021 3:38 am



The Mystery of Coronal Heating

Observations by NASA's IRIS spacecraft suggest that "heat bombs" are going off in the sun's outer atmosphere, helping to explain why the solar corona is so mysteriously hot.


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Why the sun's atmosphere is hundreds of times hotter than its surface 334pu7m

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