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75% of sea creatures glow in the dark

Dragon
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75% of sea creatures glow in the dark Empty 75% of sea creatures glow in the dark

Post by Dragon Sun Nov 22, 2020 5:02 pm

Sunlight from the surface doesn't penetrate farther than 650 feet down. Beyond that, it's a lightless expanse for the remaining 13,350 feet down to the ocean floor.

Most of us have seen footage of flickering, glowing deep sea creatures. But a new study shows that fully 75% of the ocean's creatures bioluminesce, which means that the depths of the ocean may not be nearly as dark as we might have thought. And in some categories, like jellyfish and jellyfish-like creatures (siphonophores), up to 99% of the species is able to glow.

Many of these creatures give off only a faint glow. So faint, in fact, that until recently, cameras were not able to capture it. However, the glow is bright enough for the creatures' purposes - and for those of their predators, as well.

Earlier studies were no doubt also thrown off by the fact that many of these creatures can and do turn their bioluminescence on and off at will. Light attracts food, but it also attracts predators.

And it's expensive to produce, to boot. A deep sea creature needs to preserve its energy, given how difficult it must be to make a living in the depths.

Continued...
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Post by Dragon Sun Nov 22, 2020 5:11 pm

Anglerfish

The anglerfish are fish of the teleost order Lophiiformes (/ˌlɒfiɪˈfɔːrmiːz/).] They are bony fish named for its characteristic mode of predation, in which a modified fin ray (the esca or illicium) that can be luminescent acts as a lure for other fish.

The luminescence comes from symbiotic bacteria, which are thought to be acquired from seawater, that dwell in and around the esca.


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Post by Dragon Sun Nov 22, 2020 5:16 pm

75% of sea creatures glow in the dark 640px-Striped_anglerfish_%28_Antennarius_striatus_%29
By NOAA/NMFS/SEFSC Pascagoula Laboratory

Striped anglerfish ( Antennarius striatus ). Gulf of Mexico.

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Post by Dragon Sun Nov 22, 2020 5:17 pm



First footage of deep-sea anglerfish pair


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Post by Dragon Sun Nov 22, 2020 5:19 pm

Vampire squid

The vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis, lit. "vampire squid from Hell") is a small cephalopod found throughout temperate and tropical oceans in extreme deep sea conditions.

The vampire squid uses its bioluminescent organs and its unique oxygen metabolism to thrive in the parts of the ocean with the lowest concentrations of oxygen.

This organism has two long retractile filaments, which distinguish it from both octopuses and squids, and places it in its own order, Vampyromorphida. As a phylogenetic relict, it is the only known surviving member of its order

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Post by Dragon Sun Nov 22, 2020 5:22 pm

75% of sea creatures glow in the dark Vampire_des_abysses
By © Citron

Adult vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis)

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Post by Dragon Sun Nov 22, 2020 5:23 pm



The vampire squid can turn itself "inside out" to avoid predators.


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Post by Dragon Sun Nov 22, 2020 5:32 pm

Crystal Jellyfish

Aequorea victoria, also sometimes called the crystal jelly, is a bioluminescent hydrozoan jellyfish, or hydromedusa, that is found off the west coast of North America.

The species is best known as the source of two proteins involved in bioluminescence, aequorin, a photoprotein, and green fluorescent protein (GFP).

Almost entirely transparent and colorless, and sometimes difficult to resolve, Aequorea victoria possess a highly contractile mouth and manubrium at the center of up to 100 radial canals that extend to the bell margin.

The bell margin is surrounded by uneven tentacles, up to 150 of them in fully-grown specimens. The tentacles possess nematocysts that aid in prey capture, although they have no effect on humans.

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Post by Dragon Sun Nov 22, 2020 5:35 pm

75% of sea creatures glow in the dark 640px-Aequorea4
By Sierra Blakely

Ventral view with hyperiid amphipod

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Post by Dragon Sun Nov 22, 2020 5:36 pm

75% of sea creatures glow in the dark 586px-Aequorea3
By Sierra Blakely

Ventral view with hyperiid amphipod

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Post by Dragon Sun Nov 22, 2020 5:37 pm



Crystal jellies are very transparent about their life in the open ocean.

The frilly mouth of the jelly—it's the little clapper below the bell—can extend to nearly the size of the jelly itself to swallow food.

In this video, you can see the mouth in action, moving along the bell edges to slurp food from the tentacles. Radial canals—the "spokes on a wheel"— then move nutrients about the jelly.


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