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The universe may have been filled with supermassive black holes at the dawn of time 5nvklj





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The universe may have been filled with supermassive black holes at the dawn of time

Dragon
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The universe may have been filled with supermassive black holes at the dawn of time Empty The universe may have been filled with supermassive black holes at the dawn of time

Post by Dragon Sun Mar 15, 2020 12:31 am

Nine hundred million years after the Big Bang, in the epoch of our universe's earliest galaxies, there was already a black hole 1 billion times the size of our sun. That black hole sucked in huge quantities of ionized gas, forming a galactic engine — known as a blazar — that blasted a superhot jet of bright matter into space. On Earth, we can still detect the light from that explosion more than 12 billion years later.

Astronomers had previously discovered evidence of primeval supermassive black holes in slightly younger "radio-loud active galactic nuclei," or RL AGNs. RL AGNs are galaxies with cores that look extra-bright to radio telescopes, which is considered evidence that they contain supermassive black holes. Blazars are a unique type of RL AGN that spit out two narrow jets of "relativistic" (near-light-speed) matter in opposite directions.

Those jets emit narrow beams of light at many different wavelengths and have to be pointed right at Earth for us to detect them across such vast distances. This new blazar discovery moves the date of the oldest confirmed supermassive black hole to within the first billion years of the universe's history and suggests there were other, similar black holes in that era that we haven't detected.

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The universe may have been filled with supermassive black holes at the dawn of time 334pu7m
Dragon
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Post by Dragon Sun Mar 15, 2020 12:33 am

The universe may have been filled with supermassive black holes at the dawn of time AinMqAgYaMhRccnwjnFaBg-970-80
(Image: © NRAO)

This radio image shows two jets shooting out of the center of Cygnus A, a galaxy not too far from our own. A new paper reports discovering a similar object in a much more distant, ancient galaxy. That galaxy has a bright, relatavistic jet emanating from its central supermassive black hole pointed at Earth, making it a blazar.

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The universe may have been filled with supermassive black holes at the dawn of time 334pu7m
Dragon
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Post by Dragon Sun Mar 15, 2020 12:35 am



A ricocheting jet blasting from a giant black hole has been captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Chandra's data reveal the presence of a powerful jet of particles and electromagnetic energy that has shot out from the black hole and slammed into a wall of hot gas, then ricocheted to punch a hole in a cloud of energetic particles, before it collides with another part of the gas wall.

Cygnus A is a large galaxy that sits in the middle of a cluster of galaxies about 760 million light years from Earth. A supermassive black hole at the center of Cygnus A is rapidly growing as it pulls material swirling around it into its gravitational grasp.

During this process, some of this material is redirected away from the black hole in the form of a narrow beam, or jet. Such jets can significantly affect how the galaxy and its surroundings evolve. In a deep observation that lasted 23 days, scientists used Chandra to create a highly detailed map of both the jet and the intergalactic gas, which they used to track the path of the jets from the black hole.

The jet expanded after ricocheting and created a hole in a nearby cloud of particles that is between 50,000 and 100,000 light years deep and 26,000 light years wide. For context, the Earth is located about 26,000 light years away from the center of the Milky Way galaxy.

Energy produced by jets from black holes can heat intergalactic gas in galaxy clusters and prevent it from cooling and forming large numbers of stars in a central galaxy like Cygnus A. By studying Cygnus A, scientists can tell more about how jets from black holes interact with their surroundings.


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